Monthly Archives: April 2013

April 29th

Hi All,

After a cool week last week and a chilly weekend (particularly Saturday), we have a continuation of that cool theme for most of this week as a cold low sits south-east of Iceland and funnels cold air down into a trough in the jet stream . Rainfall is likely to be on the low side and more Ireland / Scotland orientated, so a dry one as well. It’s been a topsy-turvy month really, with 2 distinct growth spurts, followed by cooling interludes and now we have a week of the same, with cool / cold nights and mild (ish) days. Still nature is playing catch up and I was delighted to see my first Swifts yesterday, plus watch an Osprey take a lovely trout in front of me at Eyebrook reservoir, bit cheeky really of him as he doesn’t even pay for a season ticket :) I reckon we are still a month behind from a nature perspective and when you see the GDD data for April, we are still playing catch up from a grass-growth perspective as well, big-time. This is causing some issues related to differential growth on greens, between different biotypes of Poa and with bentgrass as well and these will continue this week. Poa seedhead flush ?, I reckon the 2nd week of May looks a likely candidate, that’s 2 weeks later than normal.

General Weather Situation

Monday sees some overnight rain clearing the south-east of England, but after a bright, cool start in The Midlands and south of England, cloud cover soon builds as a band of rain showers pushes down over Ireland and Scotland, dissipating as it moves south, so sunshine and showers the order of the day, pushed along on a cool, north-westerly wind. As that cloud cover thins later, temperatures are likely to drop and that may give a ground frost overnight. Ground frost is likely to be a continued threat for most of this week in Scotland and England particularly by the way. Moving into Tuesday and those brisk winds lighten, but swing round to the north, so continuing cool, still though a largely dry, sunny day, after a cool start, with temperatures pushing into low double figures day time. Wednesday sees light winds and a continuation of the dry, cold start theme, with again a risk of ground frost, particularly for Scotland and parts of England, but a dry picture for the UK and Ireland. Later on a rain front pushes into north-west Connacht and then proceeds to move south-east across Ireland through the day.This rain is due to reach Scotland later on Thursday morning and then slowly sink south into the borders. Elsewhere the outlook is dry, cool, but with light winds, it’ll feel warm in the sunshine. That rain band intensifies into Friday over Ireland and Scotland, and as it does so, it begins to move south, reaching Wales and the north of England by Friday afternoon and then pushing southwards into The Midlands, along with cool north-west winds. The cloud cover during Thursday and Friday means a much reduced risk of frosts. so there’s a positive flip to the rain. So a slightly wet end to the week for southern England as that rain band passes through during Friday evening. Saturday starts off with showers and a cool northerly wind, but later into Saturday evening, the temperatures will begin to rise as an Atlantic high pressure begins to exert its influence for the 2nd part of the Bank Holiday weekend. Sunday and Monday for the U.K look like being dry, warm, sunny days, with temperatures projected to nudge into the 20’s. Ireland will have more cloud cover later on Sunday, with rain projected to push into Munster overnight into Monday.

Weather Outlook

As per last week, this is still without the Unisys factor :(

The week commencing Monday 6th May sees high pressure firmly in charge, so light winds, cool nights, dropping to 4-5°C, but temperatures pushing to the high teens / low twenties for the southern half of the U.K. The west and north will be cooler for the 1st part of the week, so I’d take 4-5°C off the above, but from Wednesday, temperatures will climb here as well. It will remain dry, with only the only rain incursion being at the start of the week into Ireland. Elsewhere, there’s no rain forecast.

Agronomic Notes

We have some tricky growing conditions at present, with the usual dichotomy related to outfield and fine turf growth rates i.e outfield turf is growing pretty well at present provided moisture is present, though it should be still under control as soil temperatures are only hovering at high single figures.

Greens / fine turf growth is another matter with Poa annua in particular proving a reluctant customer in terms of uniform growth. I’m getting some feedback where the grass sward across a green is showing multiple growth rates, from dark green and vigorous, to yellow and dormant. The cooler the regional area, the more pronounced this effect is and it’s particularly evident where there is a mixture of Poa biotypes present across a green. This is to be expected because we see the same when we talk about purpling across a green, we don’t see an even purple discolouration, we see patches across a green depending on the distribution of Poa biotypes, specifically ones that are growing at low temperatures and ones that aren’t. This has implications not just for growth but also for nutrient uptake from a fertiliser perspective because the Poa that is growing better at low air / soil temperatures will uptake nutrient, whereas the Poa that is dormant will not, so sometimes fertilisation will make the effect worse, i.e exasapate it. One of the key factors related to the appearance of differential growth appears to be the distribution of the tight, perennial Poa across a managed turf surface, because this appears to be the last biotype to start growing, temperature-wise.

I’ve talked about the lack of growth potential this year and recently showed some growth-degree-day data, but reading Karl Danneberger’s articles on the subject, he inteprets the calculation slightly differently, so we’ve amended ours to correspond with his and you can see from the charts below, the lack of growth potential both this spring cumulatively and even this month (the data is up to the 22nd April) is quite staggering.

From a cumulative growth perspective and starting from January 1st this year, we’re tracking at 50% of a normal year and 33% of a strong growing year, in other words, we’re coming from a long way back. I think we’ll probably just crack 100-105 cumulative GDD by the end of April 2013, but that’s still 40% lower than the last poor spring (2010) and 66% of a good spring (2011). One last point, the GDD calculation relates to maximum and minimum air temperature and I know the west of the U.K and Ireland has been a good bit cooler than the central UK region (where our data is collated from), so expect the lack of growth differential to be even lower.

Looking at the forecast for this week and the likely one for next, we appear to be going dry in the main part and so liquid / water-soluble fertilisation is going to be the order of the day as opposed to granular. I’d be looking at the usual suspects from an N-Source perspective, i.e ammonium sulphate, nitrate, potassium nitrate and I’d definitely be using iron to mask the differential growth response noted above. A couple of people have asked me about PGR usage, i.e trinexapac-ethyl and in my mind, on greens / fine turf, it’s too early yet. On outfield turf, that’s another matter, because if you have good coverage and just want to peg things back before the bank holiday, then it makes sense to do so.

My last point concerns Leatherjackets, well there’s a hell of alot about at present and their presence is given away by the chamfered, countersunk appearance of a feeding hole across a sward. In terms of treatment, as it is dry for many places, I’d be using a penetrant (registered adjuvant obviously) to get the Chlorpyrifos down where you need it to be. In the picture below, the grub was sitting about 40mm below the surface of this particular feeding hole.

L8trs (teenage text speak for that’s all for now apparently!)

Mark Hunt

April 22nd

Hi All,

For some, we’ve just had a pretty lovely weekend, cool start with frosts, but lovely, bright days. The warming soil and air temperatures were enough to bring my resident hedgehog family (The Snufflepigs I call them) out of hibernation, after going into it on the 28th November, last year, that’s 4 1/2 months and boy are they smaller than when they went in !

Onto a negative I’m afraid, last week, the U.S National Weather Service (in their infinite wisdom) turned off the MRF modelling output for Atlantic weather, so no more easily accessible Unisys long-range forecasting for Europe I’m afraid. Whether this is because 60% of Americans can’t point to Europe on a map, I don’t know. Having learned to interpret Unisys into a next week forecast, this means I’m no longer able to give you guys a ‘heads up’ on when weather patterns are changing on a longer-term (10 day) basis, with the same confidence. A real bummer, like losing a friend for me as I’ve worked with it for over 15 years :( Not to be outdone, I’ve been beavering away at tracking down a solution and above is our first attempt at showing a simulated temperature and rainfall chart over a 10-day period, thanks to Paul for sorting out the animation. I’ll be led by you guys on this,. if you prefer what we used to put up, say so in the comments button alongside my blog and we’ll try and sort something close.

General Weather Forecast

After a lovely weekend here (but a wet one in Ireland I think), we have a couple of good, warm days coming up, but after that it’s downhill I’m afraid as a cooler airstream is taking over, so all change later in the week. Monday sees a rain front pushing into west Connacht and Munster this morning and moving east quickly into the south-west / west of England and Wales, later in the morning before stopping. So rain in the west, but the central and eastern side of the U.K looks to stay dry with hazy sunshine. That rain lingers a little into Tuesday in northern England and northern Scotland, but elsewhere a dull start for the morning, but later on the sun breaks through and pushes the temperatures right up, probably hitting 20°C in the south of England. Winds will be light and from the west, but slowly turning round to the north-west. Into Wednesday and another band of rain pushes into Connacht and Scotland and tracks south-easterly through the morning into northern England and Wales, but at this stage it looks to be fizzling out around about the north Midlands. Further south, another lovely day, warm, with bright sunshine and those high temperatures continue. Overnight into Thursday, that rain reforms in a horizontal band over the north of England, The Midlands and east of England, so a chance of rainfall for the east side of the country. Thursday is the change day, temperature-wise, with cool air, pushed down on a north wind affecting first Scotland, then by late afternoon, Ireland and England and by close of play, all of the U.K and Ireland will be sitting in this cold air trough, so chilly it will be. Ireland looks to have a rain front stretching diagonally (/) from south-west Munster across to north Leinster and this will slowly sink south through Thursday, weakening as it does so. As we move into Friday, that wind freshens and swings round to the north-east, so temperatures will take a hike down to high single figures and overnight that rain will push south into The Midlands, Wales and the south-west, maybe getting down to the south-east, but by this stage, it’ll be light. Ireland sees a mix of cold, blustery showers, with maybe sleet and snow falling on higher ground, interspersed with sunshine and that’ll also be the weather mix for the U.K. Again temperatures will be low, high single figures and winds from the north-east. Now things start getting tricky for me as usually I’d be switching to my Unisys MRF model for the weekend and beyond, but as explained earlier, this has gone belly up, so here goes.

As we move into Saturday, the outlook is for a cold start, with a chance of rain / sleet in the far south-east early doors. Those northerly winds are still present, but as we move through the day, the wind direction is projected to change and swing round to the west by the end of the day, raising the temperature and signalling the arrival of a low pressure system over Northern Ireland. This pushes rain down into Ireland, Scotland and Wales overnight, but at this stage, elsewhere it’ll stay dry and noticeably milder for Sunday.

Weather Outlook

Next week looks to start off with another wind change as those west winds lighten and swing round to the north by close of play, pushing rain down from Scotland to all areas for Tuesday, with heavier rain potentially over south-east / south coast of England, pushing up from the continent overnight into Tuesday. By mid-week that unsettled picture stays with us, so showers and milder temperatures, with heavier rain potentially for Ireland, Wednesday / Thursday, but by the close of next week, a high pressure is set to form and if this does so it could mean a warm / very warm May Bank Holiday. Now before you go off booking your B&B, digging out the boogy boards, sun screen and bucket and spade, I stress I’m using a new forecasting model and it’ll take me a while to interpret its output accurately (that’s assuming it’s accurate as well!), so bear with me here please.

Agronomic Notes

With the 2 cold nights at the weekend and ground frost for many places, soil temperatures have taken a dive from the double figures of last week and I’m guessing that’s knocked a lot of colour out of greens, particularly high Poa annua content ones. For a lot of areas in the central and east regions, it’s also pretty dry, with below average rainfall for April (and March), so Poa is going to be looking a bit pale and showing stress, whilst bentgrass will be healthy. The warmer conditions coming for Monday through till Thursday will turn this around somewhat, but only if rainfall or irrigation is forthcoming, because that is what’s limiting Poa growth at the moment in the areas I detailed above.

I saw my first seedheads last week on Poa annua var. annua (the annual biotype of Poa annua) and that’s probably two weeks later than normal, however if we do end up getting a warm start to early May, then I think that will bring on Poa seedheads in earnest, so the 1st / 2nd week of May looks odds on at the moment for timing cultural methods. As promised we’ll publish monthly GDD data (Growth Degree Days) so we can see how this works as a predictive model for Poa seedhead development.

Very low disease pressure at the moment as you’d expect, but still lots of Leatherjacket, Bibionid and Chafer activity, with the corresponding damage from Corvids, Badgers, etc. A number of you are reporting high populations of visible grub kill after applications of Chlorpyrifos.

Last week was also the first week I noticed visible weed growth / flowering with Daisies and Dandelions the most visible. It’s going to be good conditions for selective herbicide uptake for the first part of the week (warm & dry), but thereafter, it’ll get a bit tricky. Daisies in my opinion are tricky weeds to eradicate with their comprehensive root systems, so your product / adjuvant choice is key to getting good results. If you do manage to get an application on this week, should the hot weather arrive for early May, that’ll knock them back significantly. Last year at this time we were getting cool days and rainfall, so application timings and getting good knock-back were both difficult to achieve. (Many weeds re-grew after the initial herbicide application and survived)

Enjoy the warmth, but wrap up well at the end of the week !

Mark Hunt

 

 

 

 

April 15th

Hi All,

Well the higher temperatures have arrived at last and though it blew a houlie yesterday, it was warm. Most areas also had rain last week, so we have ideal growing conditions for the first time in a long time. Fishing at the weekend, it was great to see my first Swallows, Sand and House Martins feeding up on the hatching midges after their long trip up from Africa. Their happy chatter as they go about their business is one of the signatures of springs arrival to me and always makes me smile inside :). Strangely they’re bang on time, exactly the same weekend as last year, how do they know when to arrive though, just as the weather changes, I’m guessing they’ve been sitting down south and when the wind changed, they hopped on and got a lift !

As you’d expect for this time of year, the weather will be unsettled and a little cooler towards the end of the week as a wind change takes place, but the weekend looks fine and dry for most, though cold in the morning, with a chance of ground frost. Don’t worry though, there’s no going back to what we had thankfully on the 10-day horizon at least :) Starting the weekend off with a walk, the lack of growth in winter wheat and barley was plain to see, I heard on the radio, that you should be able to hide a hare in a crop of wheat in March, whereas currently you couldn’t hide a mouse. It’ll be interesting to see how quickly crop and grass growth responds in the coming week and whether there’s a degree of catch up because a present we’re 4 weeks behind.

General Weather Situation

Monday is starting off with a mostly dry, dull picture for the U.K, with lighter winds and temperatures in the mid-teens at the height of the day, but Ireland has a rain front pushing into south-west Munster during the day and moving diagonally (\) across the country. Overnight this pushes into the west of the U.K and carries on moving diagonally up country with the heaviest rain falling in the west and central regions of Scotland. Some of this rain may push over in the form of showers across the south of England and The Midlands, but amounts will be light. By late afternoon, early evening Tuesday, the sun is breaking through and it should be a nice end to Tuesday over most areas, bar north-west Scotland. Wednesday sees a repeat of the same with rain pushing into Munster and then heading diagonally into the west of England and pushing up country, so the south-east should stay dry for the most part. Again that rain pushes into Scotland, so a wet start to the week for you guys, particularly over the west and central regions. By Thursday, the wind is on the change, swinging round to the north-west later in the day and taking the edge off the temperatures. The wind change will push that rain back down country, but as it progresses south, it lightens in intensity, so a chance of showers pretty much anywhere, amongst the sunshine. Friday sees a dry picture across the U.K and Ireland and a cooler one in the north wind, but as we finish the week, the wind lightens, high pressure asserts itself and temperatures are predicted to pick up for Saturday / Sunday after a cool start on both days. The exception will be Ireland and Scotland that will feel cooler and be possibly wetter, as a cool, low pressure system exerts its influence for Sunday and the start of next week.

 Weather Outlook

As hinted above, Monday starts off cool, but as the winds freshens and swing round to the west, temperatures rise in the central and south regions of the UK, though it’ll be cooler in the north as it is closer to the heart of the low pressure system. This low will push rain across the U.K and Ireland, with the higher amounts again falling in the west and north of the country. So an unsettled week in store next week, with sunshine and showers, cooler and wetter in the north and I’m afraid, most likely drier in the east, as again you miss out on the majority of rain I’m afraid.

Agronomic Notes

With the advent of double-figure night temperatures for most at the end of last week (and rainfall), growth will really start to kick off. Soil temperatures that were sitting down at 1-2°C, have now risen to 10-12°C, in the space of 3-4 days, with the catalyst being milder rain. The interesting point will be how long it takes Poa annua to go into seedhead mode because normally in Ireland, it’s just starting to seed, whereas in the U.K, certainly the south and Midlands, it’s not for another 2 weeks that we see widespread seeding in perennial Poa species. Obviously not all Poa annua seeds at the same time, the annual species tends to seed first, so areas that may have thinned out over the winter, and then been colonised by annual Poa, will typically see the first seedheads emerging.

It may seem strange to some people reading this, particularly those in the south that received 25mm + over the course of three days last week, but in the east, it remains dry and this may be a limiting factor from a growth perspective, so irrigation may be required. Typically this is just a light syringe to wet the top section of the profile (use a soil augur to determine where the moisture is distributed in the profile) and although it will drop the soil temperature for an hour or two, the milder temperatures for the first part of this week and lack of night-time frosts, will soon have it back up again.

Purpling of Poa, so evident over the last 10-14 days will begin to grow out naturally, now that the hand brake has been let off, but it won’t be instantaneous, as the grass plant was pretty dormant on the run up to these milder conditions.

With milder, drier conditions and reasonable air temperatures for most, the conditions are favourable for light-rate, liquid tonics to maintain colour in the sward, though in the cooler, wetter regions, I’d be staying with granular products for the foreseeable. As growth kicks in, light verticutting, grooming, brushing and topdressing will be the order of the day. These processes are critical at this time of year (Augusta :) ) to ‘shape’ the grass sward and ensure that Poa and Bentgrass blend in, rather than one species dominating and thereby producing a bumpy, uneven sward. Of course, the key here is to come into this period with a sensible cutting height because you have to remember, the higher the height of cut, the more pronounced the differences between the grass species on your green and ultimately, the more uneven the ball roll.

Now is a good time to deal with the areas on the golf course or winter season pitch that have suffered from a winter of wear and precious little recovery up until this last week. Here long-term, slow release / controlled release fertilisers are ideal as you can simply make one application and then let nature do the rest.

Lastly, I’ve had a number of reports of Badger, Fox, Corvid activity over the last 2-3 weeks as they hunt for Bibionid, Leatherjacket and Chafer Grubs. This has definitely been more pronounced / damaging this year because nature is starving after such a long winter and food hard to find. This is forcing animals to hunt for longer periods and in different places. Hopefully with the arrival of milder conditions, and more widely-available food, this will reduce the effects of their activities.

That’s all for now, have a good week.

Mark Hunt

 

April 8th

Hi All,

After a glorious weekend for most of us hopefully, where temperatures finally broke double figures 2 days in a row, attention turns to this week and the hopeful arrival of milder conditions and some rain because certainly here that’s what we need to kick-start the growing process on a lot of maintained turf areas. The milder conditions that were scheduled to get here mid-week are now running a couple of days behind and so although it’ll be milder than of late this week, with a distinct lack of night frosts, it’s not to the end of the week / weekend before temperatures start to pick up in earnest. Incidentally had to laugh to read Severn & Trent Water Company cautioning consumers on using water responsibly, due to “3 drier than normal rainfall months” for the start of this year, err didn’t we just have the wettest year on record preceding that ?

General Weather Situation

Today, Monday starts off cool with a scheduled return to easterly winds bringing more cloud cover off the North Sea, further west it’s a brighter affair, with a good deal of sun for Ireland. Later on Monday night, a rain front moves into Kerry and the south-west of England and slowly tracks north-eastwards through Tuesday morning, into Wales and the south of England before fizzling out in the afternoon in The Midlands. Amounts should be reasonably light, 2-4mm for most places, so nothing too horrendous., though it maybe more in South Wales and the south west as the rain lingers into the night here. Wednesday looks dry in the south of England, but for Ireland there’s a chance of showers throughout the day across most of the country. Temperatures will be high single figures and winds still easterly / northerly in nature, so keeping things cool, though we should just about avoid any night frosts.

By the end of Wednesday, a more concerted front of rain pushes into Kerry and the south-west of England and moves diagonally (\) up country going into Thursday. The rain is scheduled to track slowly northwards and possibly fall as snow on higher ground in the north as it meets that cold air, but temperatures will slowly be on the up as that wind finally swings round to the south / south-west. Overnight into Friday, that rain fizzles out, but a new rain band is scheduled to push into the south of England and at this stage only track as far north as the M4 – London sort of level, but we’ll see. Elsewhere drier, but still on the cool side as that easterly wind hangs on for another day, hopefully it’s last though. Ireland looks like having a drier end to the week with sunshine, however the weekend doesn’t look so good for either Ireland or the U.K as a really intense low is projected to form. So as we move into Saturday, those winds gather in strength and this heralds the arrival of rain I’m afraid for Saturday, reaching Munster and the south-west of England on Saturday morning and pushing north-eastwards through the day, though the far south-east / east corner of the country may escape the worst. The same is true for Sunday and if anything those south westerly / south winds will be even stronger, so gale force winds pushing that rain through, though hopefully by Sunday afternoon, the worst of the rain will have passed.

Weather Outlook

If everything comes to pass as projected, by the start of next week, that intense low pressure system will have moved through and we’ll be left with a mild, westerly airflow, sunshine and showers, with temperatures in the mid teens I think for most of the week and looking settled, let’s hope so.

 Agronomic Notes

So a slow transition back to moisture and temperature this week, but maybe that’s a good omen as the grass plant will need time to break dormancy and respond to the change in growing potential. I’d be using this week to get my granulars out in readiness for the arrival of rain and hopefully push on some recovery where you need it.

I’ve covered alot of the issues in the last two weeks relating to aeration suitability and choice of nutrition, so really nothing too much to add on this point, except to emphasise not to work the grass plant too hard from a lateral aeration perspective, verticutting, gradening, scarifying, until you have initiated growth successfully.

One area that will require more work than normal are wear areas like the pathways, from greens to tees, as these areas have been hammered with play, but as the growth-degree-day charts showed last week, they’ve had very little chance to recover, so here a helping hand is needed in terms of nutrition. Again I feel a granular product is more effective here, both from a practical application perspective and the amount of growth potential / longevity of growth that results from such an application.

All the best.

 

Mark Hunt

 

5th April – Mini Update

 Hi All,

I did say I’d update this week to check on the potential progress of milder weather.

As I look out of the window I can see the north-easterlies are still blowing hard and like a lot of you yesterday, we had a dusting of snow in the morning. This will be a short blog because I’m laid up with tonsillitis, so not 100% :(  On the subject of easterlies, young James Watson sent me this cracking picture of Hoar Frost on Dartmoor, absolutely brilliant.

So is the weather pattern still changing ?

Yep, it is changing, definitely, the jet stream is shifting up and aligning itself in a position that we’d expect for this time of year. It’s uncanny because it’s almost exactly a year to the day when it did precisely the opposite and moved from it’s normal position and dropped down into The Med. Is it changing for good ?, I don’t know and nor does anyone else IMHO.

The change should take place mid-week, next week, with the wind direction swopping to a westerly, so that means milder air, less risk of night frost and most likely rainfall as well, with Tuesday / Wednesday looking to bring some rain, though it shouldn’t be too heavy. For me, we need the rain, not because we have a soil moisture deficit, (see below) but because these winds of late have dried areas out and dessicated the grass plant, so the quickest way to reverse this is with milder rain. It’s also the quickest way to raise the soil temperature as well.

So for the weekend we have a quieter picture as we finally lose those crappy winds, so temperatures will rise a good bit and it’ll feel pleasant in the sun, especially on Saturday. Sunday looks to have more cloud cover, but again I think temperatures will be a little higher than of late in a quieter wind. Monday / Tuesday are the change days as the wind should move round to the east, then south and finally by Tuesday, the south-west. This will push some bands of rain into Ireland early doors Tuesday, as usual Kerry gets it first :(, then it’ll move diagonally (\) into the south-west of England / Wales by mid-morning and then push up country reaching most parts by evening. This first band will be reasonably light, sunshine and showers like….like April used to be :) I expect temperatures by mid-week to reach double figures and with the change in wind direction, we’ll lose night frosts, so soil temperatures and growth will commence. On Wednesday we have a second band of rain moving in, this will be heavier and cover most of the country during the day, again pushed on by a strong, south-westerly wind. By the end of the week, temperatures should rise even further to mid-teens, yes that’s mid-teens, accompanied by a strong westerly wind and no doubt some showers. A key point to remember here is that with a westerly airflow, rain moves through quickly, rather than deluging and also we have more drying potential in the wind, so all in all, it should be much better for all of us.

As promised earlier, we have a 1st quarter summary of soil temperature vs. 2012, rainfall vs. E.T and degree day calculations. Thanks for the data (Sean) and Wendy for compiling it, this is her job now every quarter, so if you don’t get it, you know where to go knocking :). The info is available in pdf form for download  here ; Weathercomparison1stquarter2013

It’ll be interesting this spring seeing how everything responds, because we’re coming from so far back, with the coldest March since 1947 announced yesterday. So how will it affect disease cycles, nematode life cycles, Poa annua seeding, etc ?

For me the latter will be particularly interesting to note. Normally at this time of year, Poa annua is just about to start seeding on greens in Ireland, but it’s a good way back from that at the moment, my guess is it’ll catch up fast, but I think we’ll be 2-3 weeks behind in Ireland and maybe 10-14 days behind in the U.K, (Mid-May then), time will tell.

Ok that’s it for now, have a good weekend.

Mark Hunt