Monthly Archives: October 2012

October 29th

Hi All,

Well as we tip-toe into November from a soggy and cooler October, it looks like winter will be with us in earnest this week. Looking at the weather that’s coming and taking into consideration yesterday was the last day of fly fishing at Eyebrook until next March, I’m on a bit of a downer 🙁 (Plus I blanked on my last day – ho hum ).

Scandinavian Immigrant - The Fieldfare

Winter is very definitely on the way and one of the clearest indicators are the flocks of Redwings and Fieldfares hopping over from Scandinavia to feast on our berry crop and escape the harsh winters of Finland and Norway. If you’re out and about at night, you can hear them coming over.

The two features of the weather you’ll really notice this week are the very strong, but very cold, westerly winds, from mid-week and the high level of rainfall / sleet / snow with the latter very likely the further north you’re situated. This low pressure system on the way is pretty intense so the conditions will be quite extreme for awhile this week and into the weekend, however as quick as it starts it’ll finish, so the outlook thereafter is warmer and milder.

General Weather Situation

Monday starts off quiet, with some overnight rain lingering over Wales and the south-west of England for most of the morning, before clearing later. Elsewhere it looks mainly dry, sunny with a risk of showers in the Midlands through the afternoon. Temperatures will feel much milder than of late due to the low wind strength. Tuesday continues this quiet theme for most areas with low winds and most of the U.K and Ireland dry, except for a rain front pushing into Scotland through the day and some lighter showers over Leinster. Wednesday sees the start of the change as winds begin to strengthen and a heavy rain front pushes into Ireland in the wee hours. This rain pushes south and east into Scotland and Wales, eventually affecting the southern half of the U.K later in the day and overnight into Thursday. I expect this rain to fall as heavy snow over the high ground of Scotland. Where it clears (Ireland p.m), it’ll be brighter, but feeling cooler than of late. By morning rush hour Thursday that band of rain is clearing the east coast of England to leave behind brighter, but colder conditions, but there’s a  risk of rain in the south-west of England, Wales and along the west coast of Scotland, as well as across south-west Munster, p.m. These showers will become increasingly wintry in nature across Scotland and the north of England. There may also be some showers inland, but these will few and far between. Friday sees that rain clearing Scotland, but again it lingers in the south-west (you guys are going to have some pretty high annual rainfall figures this year vs. the east of the U.K). Friday sees a day of sunshine and blustery showers pushed along on a biting south-west / westerly wind with rain fronts across Ireland, Scotland, the west coast and Wales. Later in the day, the rain consolidates to a heavy band pushing into the south-west at lunchtime and then across the south of the U.K and Midlands during the afternoon / evening, so a soggy end to the day here.

For the weekend, Saturday looks to start bright and cold before a band of rain pushes up from the continent into the south of England and slowly moves up into The Midlands through the morning. It may take most of the day to clear and on Sunday I expect more rain pushing up, so a potentially wet and cold weekend I’m afraid for some areas.

Weather Outlook

A tough week in store this week, but the week after is looking quite different and more in keeping of what we usually get in the first week of November, i.e mild and even potentially warm. For the start of next week I expect it’ll be cool, potentially frosty, but with lighter winds. As we move into the week, the winds will whip around to the west and courtesy of a warm, Atlantic high pressure system, push warm, mild air across Ireland and the U.K, but as it comes from the Atlantic, it will be moist air, so expect some rainfall to be associated with it. Bizarrely it wouldn’t surprise me if we hit high-teens in the south west of England later on next week.

 Agronomic Notes

Last weeks mild and saturated weather certainly ramped up the Fusarium pressure as predicted the week before and there’s been some pretty aggressive Fusarium around the place, particularly noticeable on areas that weren’t covered by a fungicide, so approaches, tee areas and fairways. Even on areas that were covered, small outbreaks were observed, as conditions were so conducive for disease development, indeed I saw mycelium out and about last week. Looking closer at the photos I took afterwards also revealed an interesting phenomenon highlighted below in circles.

If you look closely you can see guttation fluid drops on the tips of the grass plants and circled, you can also see active Fusarium mycelium growing on the guttation fluid. Just to remind you, guttation fluid are droplets of water solution, filled with sugars and plant nutrients that are exuded from either the cut tips of grass leaves and / or through pores in the surface known as Hydathodes by water pressure, this normally occurs after or during a wet spell of weather, if subsequent conditions are favourable for dew development.

When you remove dew from your greens and other areas, it’s often the case that later in the morning you can see droplets on the grass tip, some of this is in fact re-formed dew, however some of it is re-exuded guttation fluid and it’s this that acts as a catalyst for disease, almost a food pack in itself. This photo captures this process and explains why you can sometimes see Fusarium fungus form even when the grass plant is under the cover of a fungicide.

I expect disease pressure to drop back a bit this week with the cooler temperatures, which is a relief, because other than Monday and Tuesday, spray days are going to be few and far between with the strength of the wind. Later next week, if the weather stays on track, I expect disease pressure to increase again.

Worm activity will continue to be an issue with the high levels of soil moisture and as usual carbendazim is having its fair share of ‘hit and miss’ results.

One point I’d make when using carbendazim and sulphur is that the conversion of sulphur in the soil to sulphuric acid (and subsequent acidification) is catalysed by microbial activity and therefore the acidification of the surface isn’t an instant process, so applying the two together (as some companies are touting) is not the optimum practice. The better idea would be to apply the sulphur at least 4-6 weeks prior to the carbendazim, if this is practically feasible. The other point is that soil acidification is a complex process and dependent upon a number of factors including CEC,organic matter levels, current soil pH. I’d always suggest checking your soil pH first prior to an application and then monthly after applying your sulphur to see if it’s having an effect. Also remember to test the surface 2″, don’t push your pH tester in too deep. It goes without saying that you should also dose your spray tank water (before, not after adding your chemical) if the pH of the water is alkaline and particularly if it is hard in nature.

All the best.

Mark Hunt









October 22nd

Good Afternoon to you all..

Took this pic as the sun broke through early morning fog over the dam at Eyebrook Reservoir yesterday (Sunday) morning, truly beautiful, pity that I was having a fishing strop at the time…..Well, a week of two parts coming up, as we have mild air for the start of the week, even though it’s currently as dull as dishwater outside, later on in the week, we’ll have a major temperature drop, but I don’t think it’s going to be quite as bad as the weather media say, chilly definitely, but not quite winter yet and after all, we are nearly into November. I also think it’ll be worse on the east side of the U.K, than the west by the way if you’re grabbing a half-term break.

General Weather Situation

So for Monday, a dull day with a weak band of rain moving northwards, gradually dissipating as it goes . Dull is the theme for the first part of the week because by and large it looks to stay dry (but with a damp feel as the air is saturated with water vapour) and dull for the rest of Monday and Tuesday , with perhaps a chance of sunshine in the south-east later on Tuesday and some light rain for Leinster and the north of England through Tuesday morning and afternoon. Winds from the north-east are pushing cloud in from the North Sea and that’s why we have the lack of sunshine. Wednesday carries on the dull theme, with perhaps a break in the cloud for Scotland, north of Glasgow. Into Thursday, temperatures begin to drop from their mid-teens into high single figures, as an easterly feel to the wind kicks in. We’re actually quite lucky because a high pressure system is keeping the really cold stuff east of us on the continent and it wouldn’t surprise me if Scandinavia sees the first major snow of winter at the end of the week / weekend. So Friday dawns cold with snow showers over the mountains of Scotland and The Pennines probably, further south it remains dull and chilly for the rest of the U.K and Ireland with much colder night temperatures, though the cloud cover should prevent a frost, though where it breaks, I expect a frost on Friday night / Saturday morning. The outlook for the  weekend looks like more of the same, cold, but potentially brighter on Saturday, though winds will strengthen and move round to the north, so that’ll make it feel well cool on the east side of the U.K, particularly on Sunday. For the west and Ireland, it’ll feel cool, but not as cold and pretty dry, with no rain systems in sight. The problem is with a saturated atmosphere I don’t expect much drying to actually take place.

Weather Outlook

The outlook for next week is that the winds will drop on Monday and therefore temperatures wil pick up, but not by much, and as we move into Tuesday the wind will push round to the west signalling the arrival of another cool low pressure system that’ll introduce a wetter, more unsettled theme to next week. By Thursday, that low will be dissipating to leave a cold feel to the weather with night frosts very likely from Thursday onwards next week.

Agronomic notes

With the mild night and day temperatures and saturated atmosphere, it won’t be a statement of the obvious to say that Fusarium pressure will be high this week, particularly through till Thursday. Currently the air is 94% saturated with moisture so that makes it very easy for a fungus to move across and to and from other grass plants. It also means you may be dew brushing the greens in the early morning, only to see the dew and guttation fluid reform shortly afterwards and in fact all through the day.

The other point to make is that in my experience when we get a sudden drop in temperature, the activity and efficacy of fungicides changes as well, most likely due to slower uptake by the grass plant. I noted this with Iprodione during November 2010, when we started the month in the high teens and finished close to -10 °C. End-users who applied product close to the middle of the month saw very little efficacy from their application and many applied again thinking that it hadn’t worked. The reality for me was that uptake was slow and there was a lag between application and a visual confirmation that the growth of the fungi was slowing. This lag is accentuated during sudden downward temperature changes.

It doesn’t just affect Iprodione of course, systemic fungicides are also affected, particularly the ones that rely on root uptake as the main vector to enter the plant. To try and reduce this lag effect you need to stimulate plant uptake, so try applying close to or with (if you know the materials are compatible) a water-soluble or liquid fertiliser application. I’m not saying the change in temperature later this week will be the same as the one we experienced in November 2010 (unlike the Beeb), but it will slow down uptake and therefore affect efficacy, that’s for sure.

On the nutrition side, if you’re planning on fertilising, I’d be trying to do it early on this week so it gets in the plant before the temperature change. If this is not practically feasible then the best option is to delay application till things settle down a bit and the plant gets used to cooler temperatures.

OK that’s all for now, sorry it’s late…wrap up well at the end of the week :mrgreen:

Mark Hunt






October 15th


Hi All,

As we all look back on a poor summer and questions begin to be asked about the coming winter, I thought I’d have a see how actually poor it was, from a growth perspective, simply by looking at the average soil temperature from March to September. As you can see from the graph, the difference between a warm summer (2006) to a cool summer (2012) is about 1.5°C in soil temperature terms, in other words, not a lot. It is also interesting to note that aside from 2009, the trend is downward.

Now I know alot of you will look at this graph and then think back to the amount of growth on outfield areas that you’ve had to contend with, but the take home points are these – the above is a measure of greens growth and this is a controlled environment to the extent that the area is irrigated. Outfield growth is dependent on the vast majority of courses on rainfall and it’s this that is the precursor of growth, not temperature.

One last thought before I move onto the weather, this summer we have endured a ‘trough’ pattern in the jet stream, so that’s cool and wet, the alternative as experienced by the U.S and Russia, is the peak pattern, which is record hot temperatures and dry, which would you prefer for your facility for the summer ?.









General Weather Situation

My projection from last weeks weatherblog was that we would be in for a wet and windy week this week and as you can see from the Weathercheck portal above for my home location, that appears to be the case, not that you could tell at present because it’s quiet, drizzly and dull outside at the moment. For this week though, low pressure is the kiddy I’m afraid.

So for Monday, we have some light rain around the south-west, south coast of England, northern England and Scotland and this rain will push inland affecting most areas with showers during the day. Ireland should be reasonably dry until the back end of the afternoon, (5 p.m.) when a concentrated band of rain pushes into south-west Munster and then north and eastwards across into the south-west of England and through the night, most areas will receive rain. By Tuesday early morning  that rain is arranged in a loose horizontal band across Connacht, Leinster and the north of England / Wales, other areas should be dry with pleasant sunshine and feeling a little milder than of late. For Wednesday we have a repeat of this as a new band of heavy rain pushes into Munster and the south-west of England and then north and eastwards up through Ireland and the U.K through the day, so potentially a wet one for some areas. As that clears from most places overnight, the low pressure sits straight over us and effectively rotates around, so this time it pushes rain into Ireland and the south-west for Thursday and in turn it brings up a new rain band from the continent that is projected to push up the eastern side of the U.K through Thursday p.m. For Friday, that rain is still with us and circulating across the U.K, so again a day of rain and showers with potentially heavy rain in the south-west and the north of England, but for Ireland, you may just miss this lump.

For the weekend we still have a low pressure in charge and it’s actually quite amazing how far south this low is projected to drop. As you can see from the Unisys image, that low pressure system is nearly reaching down to The Canary Islands and it’s all a feature of the trough effect I keep harping on about.


This weekend looks like continuing the unsettled theme with a dry start for many to Saturday potentially( Note to self – must get the lawn cut a.m.) before rain moves into the south-west and pushes east and northwards on a southerly wind pattern. Ironically we may then miss the worst of the rain as this low pushes south and takes the rain with it, so maybe not a bad end to the weekend.

 Weather Outlook

Tricky one next week I think because the low is projected to slowly slip away and in doing so it’ll encourage warmer, drier air (potentially) into the U.K and Ireland from Monday, so temperatures will begin to recover from their slightly unseasonably current cool position. So I think mild and potentially warm next week with temperatures in the mid to high teens maybe by the end of the week and certainly drier 🙂

Air temperature - last week of October - Thame, England


Agronomic Notes

It is worth noting that for the last 3 years, the last week of October has been mild and in some cases pretty warm and it looks like 2012 will be similar, as warm air pushes up from Africa. This of course has major effects on disease activity and in particular Fusarium and that’s what I’m going to talk about…..

Currently soil temperatures are sitting a little lower than normal, but I’d expect them to slowly rise this week and with ever-present moisture around, the stage is set for some heavy disease pressure next week. Bearing in mind that cutting frequencies, but more specifically the amount of leaf taken off in cutting will increase (as there’s not a lot coming off greens at the moment), this will have an effect on fungicide longevity.

I work on 4-5 weeks maximum longevity of coverage from a full-rate systemic and for Fusarium those comments only apply to a DMI (De-methylation Inhibitor) chemistry (actives like Propiconazole, Tebuconazole, Epoxiconazole, Cypriconazole- last 2 continental usage only) rather than Strobilurin chemistries, which I believe are inherently weaker on Fusarium at the labelled, UK application rates.

I’ve put full-rate systemic in bold because there are a number of companies touting ‘fungicide packages’ with their ‘half-rate this and half-rate that’ systemic component.Think about it, the systemic component of a fungicide tank mix is designed to provide longevity, so if you half-rate it, it cannot provide the same strength of cover, for the same time period, as a full rate. If you half-rate a fertiliser application, it doesn’t provide the same growth, colour and longevity as a full-rate application does it, so why should a systemic fungicide be any different ?. Be warned.

So bottom line, look at your last application type and date and work ahead 4-5 weeks to plan your next one. Spraying days this week are going to be tricky because of the rain pulses pushing through and the strength of the wind, particularly from Tuesday onwards and at the end of the week, so you may be better waiting till next week to apply if that’s practically feasible. (As it looks quieter and drier)

Other than a slowly ramping up disease pressure, there is alot of worm activity and this is set to continue with the weather forecast, but again getting out to spray will be tricky this week. It’s also worthy of note that I’m seeing a good bit of pecking and digging from our feathered and furry friends respectively…some of this is for worms, but some is for Leatherjackets, Bibionids maybe and Chafers.

Must dash, new technical support co-ordinator starting today, Hi Wendy, so hopefully I can soon retire to Trout and Barbel fishing from my palatial Market Harborough mansion…..there’s dreaming for you 🙂

All the best

Mark Hunt




October 8th

Hi All,

A bit later than usual today, my apologies, but at least I can see the rain that I predicted for today in last weeks blog actually did transpire, particularly for the south of the U.K. Read an interesting piece on contributory factors to this summer’s wet weather on the BBC Weather website ( and sure enough they’re pointing at meanders in the jet stream as the reason, but the cause seems to be linked to warming of the Atlantic, less Arctic Sea Ice and for me, the low level of U.V radiation from the sun, due to the intensity (or lack of it) in the current sun cycle. Either way the trough pattern remains in place, so more of the same I’m afraid for now. Critically the last week of October and 1st week of November have for the past 4 years been unseasonably warm, so we’ll see if this pattern repeats itself.

General Weather Situation

Currently we have a band of heavy rain from The Midlands down that will be slow to clear, but the good news is we have a dry interlude before another deep depression pushes down for the end of the week, so Tuesday looks a better day for most areas, with mild temperatures and some sunshine, however a band of rain will make its way into south-west Munster and the south-west of England early doors and move slowly north to affect South Wales, Bristol and the south coast of England, pretty much up to Eastbourne. The rest of the U.K and Ireland will be dry. For Wednesday, we pretty much have a repeat as that rain fizzles out during the day, but it may be reluctant to do so from South Wales and south west Munster (Kerry).Winds will be light and southerly for most, so mild air and good for spraying. For Thursday we have a change on the way, as a cool band of air is pushed down and pressure begins to drop. This brings with it moist air and rain in a vertical line, intially for west Munster and Connacht, but this will quickly move east to affect the western side of the U.K, before moving inland to affect central areas of England and Scotland later in the day, so potentially a wet end to the day for many. Unfortunately there’s more as the saying goes with that rain intensifying over central England during Friday morning giving appreciable rainfall. West of this should be drier and brighter with only a weak band of rain pushing across Ireland during the day. That rain pushes eastwards during the day and finally clears around late evening, so we may get an inch or more in the process in some areas. The outlook for the weekend doesn’t look great for Ireland and England at least with some potentially heavy rain on the cards for Sunday, though Saturday may be ok for most areas (except south west Munster and the south west of England).

Weather Outlook

The low pressure system that is set to bring a wet end to the week is projected to intensify for the early part of next week, so strong southerly winds will push in heavy rain for many areas of the U.K. I therefore expect a wet start to next week and for most of the week, the outlook is unsettled and wet, so not great I’m afraid, particularly with the ground already saturated.

 Agronomic Notes

The wet weather has certainly kicked off the worm activity as mentioned last week, so if you’re able to do so, Tuesday and Wednesday offer good spraying opportunities for this application, thereafter I think it’ll be difficult to get out and apply to be honest for the next week or so.

The mild temperatures, with the odd cold night thrown in, have resulted in some heavy dews and with a moist soil, we can expect disease pressure to remain moderate to high from a Fusarium perspective. At this stage I can’t see any sign of those high teen, night temperatures we often get at this time of year, that really ramp up the disease pressure, so at least that’s some consolation.

Nutrition-wise, it depends on your perspective and how much growth you need to generate at the moment. Some people still need recovery from aeration and / or Anthracnose damage and the choice here is a high input foliar or a light rate, autumn / winter granular. If your sward is good, with nice density and health, I’d just be tickling it along at this stage with plant hardeners and elicitors, inputting around 4-5 kg / N / Hectare and balanced nicely with potassium and calcium, so any growth is hard in nature. Obviously iron plays a part in maintaining colour particularly as temperatures drop so that’s a given in my books.

It’s worth bearing in mind when you look back on this year and review your greens performance, that loss of nutrient through leaching will definitely have played a part in fertiliser efficacy and particularly longevity (and therefore greens health). This is because the summer was cooler and the rainfall events were more concentrated / extreme, and this provides ideal conditions for nutrient loss by leaching. Some work I did on leaching from USGA-spec rootzones showed that the most-readily leached nutrients were nitrogen,(both nitrate and ammoniacal), calcium, potassium and sulphur, phosphorus and magnesium, less-so.  Ask yourself this question “Bearing in mind the high level of rainfall in summer 2012, did you change your nutritional input level and / or frequency to compensate? “

Another factor you should consider is the low light levels that come with unseasonably wet summers and again this really has had a pronounced effect on grass growth. Of course the tricky thing in our industry is you can’t measure it easliy because of the number of variables, but in other market sectors, like agriculture, it’s a fact that low light levels in summer 2012 have contributed to poor yields and in particular, poor quality.

I’d expect to see more moss ingression if this wet spell of weather continues, particularly on areas that may have thinned over September’s dry period (for the south). Iron is really the only recourse at this stage of the year to keep populations in check along with trying to maintain low surface moisture levels, easier said than done with the current weather though.

All the best.

Mark Hunt






1st October

Hi All,

“Pinch, punch, first of the month”, so the old folklore saying goes, I was certainly pinching myself last night listening to the commentary on The Ryder Cup (No Sky ) and to hear us come back from such as poor position was quite frankly amazing, I had to turn the sound down at some stages as I couldn’t bear the tension :), brill, a credit to all of the players and a fantastic win for Europe, fair play….

It was only a week ago that we endured our most intense low pressure system on record for September. John Scott at St Mellion reported 64mm fell between 7am 23rd Sept – 7am 24th Sept and at one point the rain rate was 67mm/hr, torrential. (a record on both accounts for the site). James Braithwaite from Long Ashton reported 82mm over a 22hour period and Colin Jones from Mold G.C reported 62mm, so the west side of the U.K definitely came off worst. September is traditionally a dry month and for some areas, this has been the case with average rainfall across the month, of course the fact that the stats hide is that 80% of September’s rainfall fell over a short period of days…

General Weather Situation

The trough pattern in the jet stream is still in place, so that means low pressure will be the order of the day for the start of October, as the graphic above clearly shows. So cool(ish), wet and windy, particularly for the north and Scotland for the next 10 days with warmer air arriving at the end of the week to kick off Fusarium in earnest 🙁

So for Monday, a bright start for some areas with a diagonal band of rain sitting across the U.K stretching from the south west up to north of The Wash. As we go through the day, this sinks southwards, so showers for many, with longer outbreaks of rain in the south east. For Ireland, the day should be one of sunshine and showers, with the wind from the south-west. For Tuesday, a heavier band of rain pushes into west Connacht and Munster in the morning and this rain moves east across all of Ireland and then into the south-west, Wales, the north-west of England and Scotland by early afternoon, so a wet day here I’m afraid. That rain appears to stay stuck firmly to the west coast of the U.K through the day, so only a low risk of showers elsewhere. As we move into Wednesday, a new band of rain pushes into Ireland early doors and just about everywhere else is odds on for showers or heavier rain through the day, you may miss them, but tricky to say at this point. Thursday looks to be a dry day for all and a warmer one as warm air pushes up from the south-west on strong winds, a feature of this week, so nice for many out of the wind and in the sunshine. By close of play on Thursday, more rain is pushing in, so a wet end for the day in Munster, Leinster, Wales and the south-west of England. Overnight as we move into Friday, this rain intensifies and Friday looks to be the wettest day of the week for many. By midday, the rain is clearing the north of England, but at this stage, its orientation appears to be more southward, so a line from The Midlands down appears to start and end Friday with plenty of rain. Ireland after an initial soaking should see out the day dry. The weekend looks to start wet at this stage in the south of England, but drier in the north, Scotland and Ireland on Saturday. On Sunday, a new low pressure system is winding up, so I expect more rain pushing into Ireland, but until this arrives in the U.K, it should be the best day of the weekend.

Weather Outlook

The unsettled theme looks to continue next week with mild, wet and windy weather on the cards. I expect a wet start to next week with heavy rain potentially Monday and Tuesday before decreasing in intensity to showers thereafter. Winds will be strong and south-westerly / southerly in direction and it’ll feel mild in the wind. As the low is projected to sit quite far south (a feature of our lazy jet stream), there could potentially be more flooding for the south-west and west of the U.K I’m afraid.

Agronomic Notes

Plenty of Fusarium doing the rounds now, so that call last week to get the preventative on was hopefully well-timed :). Another feature of the wet and mild weather has been increased worm activity, particularly on higher height of cut areas, so now would be a good time to apply Carbendazim. As this mild and wet weather looks to be the order of the day for the start of October at least, you can only imagine that worms will continue to be a problem.

There’s been quite a bit of Take-All during September, often on areas where it hasn’t occurred before and I’d put this down to the wet summer encouraging and extending its activity beyond the more normal June / July period. Although I know it hasn’t been dry in the north of the country (thanks Ian) , September was a comparatively dry month till that deluge arrived in the last week, so that put the grass plant under a bit of moisture stress and guys were hand watering a good deal during the middle of the month in The Midlands and south of that.

A benefit of the mild soil temperatures and ever-present moisture is that grass plants affected during September by Anthracnose and Take-All should be able to recover and if the damage done has warranted overseeding, this should take well. Poa is a survivor and often I see areas that on first sight appear critically-damaged by disease such as Anthracnose Foliar Blight and Take All, only for them to recover if conditions and the right cultural practices are forthcoming.

New roots on Anthracnose damaged Poa annu











The image above shows the root system and older leaves of a Poa annua plant damaged by disease, but new roots are allowing the plant to generate new leaves and thus survive. Note this plant is Poa annua var. reptans i.e Perennial Poa. In severe cases of this disease, the bare areas will become colonised by the annual form of this plant, i.e the coarser-leaved, biotype with greater seed production, unless of course overseeding is undertaken. So to generate recovery we’re talking about solid tining / sarrell rolling, overseeding, topdressing and fertilising, preferably with a granular organic product.

Soil temperatures are still sitting in the low teens (12.9°C here at present) so seed germination won’t be an issue at the moment and looking ahead, I can’t see any sign of us losing the current mild, south-westerly / westerly air stream.

All the best.

Mark Hunt